In Order to determine the important dates of Sikh events,A retired computer engineer Sikh Canadian, Pal Singh Purewal developed Nanakshahi calendar for the integrity of the Sikh religion. The traditional Bikrami calendar was replaced by Nanakshahi calendar in 1998 by Shrimoni Gurudwara Prabhandak Committee (SGPC) during the presidency of Sikh scholar Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar. The epoch of this calendar is the birth of the first Sikh guru, Nanak Dev 1469.According to Nanakshahi calendar new year falls annually on March 14 in the Gregorian western calendar.
Nanakshahi calendar is a solar calendar which means it is based on the time it takes for earth to rotate around sun. It is named Nanakshahi calendar as Guru nanak’s birth is considers as year one and is named after guru Nanak (founder of Sikhism).
Nanakshahi calendar is precisely tuned with sun’s position which means seasons do not change from year to year. Year length ( 365 days 5 hour 48 minutes) is same as in western calendar. Nanakshahi calendar contains 5 months of 31 day followed by 6 months of 30 days and Phagun which is considered to be the last month of year contains one extra day for leap year. Nanakshahi calendar is based on Gurbani and names of month’s were taken from guru Granth sahib.
Months in Nanakshahi Calendar
|Sr. No||Month’s name in English||Month’s name in Punjabi||No. Of Days||Gregorian Months|
|1||Chet||ਚੇਤ||31||14 March – 13 April|
|2||Vaisakh||ਵੈਸਾਖ||31||14 April – 14 May|
|3||Jeth||ਜੇਠ||31||15 May – 14 June|
|4||Harh||ਹਾੜ||31||15 June – 15 July|
|5||Sawan||ਸਾਵਣ||31||16 July – 15 August|
|6||Bhadon||ਭਾਦੋਂ||30||16 August – 14 September|
|7||Assu||ਅੱਸੂ||30||15 September – 14 October|
|8||Katak||ਕੱਤਕ||30||15 October – 13 November|
|9||Maghar||ਮੱਘਰ||30||14 November – 13 December|
|10||Poh||ਪੋਹ||30||14 December – 12 January|
|11||Magh||ਮਾਘ||30||13 January – 11 February|
|12||Phagun||ਫੱਗਣ||30 / 31||14 March – 13 April|